1, solar panels
The main function of solar panels is to convert light energy into electrical energy. This phenomenon is called photovoltaic effect. Among the many solar cells, the more common and practical ones are mainly monocrystalline silicon solar cells, and their price is much cheaper than that of monocrystalline silicon cells. The conversion efficiency has also been increasing in recent years. In the southern part of the rainy days where there is relatively little sunshine, it is better to use monocrystalline silicon solar cells, because the electrical performance parameters of monocrystalline silicon solar cells are relatively stable. Amorphous silicon solar cells are better when the indoor sunlight is weak, because amorphous silicon solar cells have lower requirements for solar lighting conditions.
For a single-chip solar cell, it is a PN junction that has all the characteristics of a PN junction in addition to the ability to generate electricity when it is illuminated by sunlight. Its rated output voltage is 0.48V under standard lighting conditions. The solar modules used in solar lighting fixtures are all made up of multiple solar cell connections.
2, solar charge and discharge controller
Regardless of the size of the solar luminaire, a good performance charge and discharge control circuit is essential. In order to extend the service life of the battery, its charging and discharging conditions must be limited to prevent overcharging and deep discharge of the battery. In addition, since the input energy of the solar photovoltaic power generation system is extremely unstable, the control of charging the battery in the photovoltaic power generation system is more complicated than the control of the ordinary battery charging. For the design of solar luminaires, success and failure often depend on the success and failure of the charge and discharge control circuit. Without a good performance charge and discharge control circuit, solar lamps will not work well.
3. Solar energy storage battery
Since the input energy of the solar photovoltaic power generation system is not stable enough, it is generally necessary to configure the battery system to work, and the solar light fixture is no exception, and the battery must be configured to work. Generally, there are lead-acid batteries, Ni-Cd batteries, and Ni-H batteries, and their capacity selection directly affects system reliability and system price. The choice of battery capacity generally follows the following principles: First, the energy of the solar module during the day is stored as much as possible while meeting the night illumination, and at the same time, it is necessary to store the electric energy required for the night rainy day. If the battery capacity is too small, it can not meet the needs of night lighting or meet the needs of continuous use. If the battery capacity is too large and the battery board cannot provide enough charging current, the battery is often in a deficient state, which affects the battery life and is easy to waste. .
4, the load
Solar lighting products have the advantage of energy saving and environmental protection. Of course, the load needs to be energy-saving and has a long service life. We generally use LED lights and 12V DC energy-saving lamps and low-pressure sodium lamps.
Most lawn lamps use LED as the light source. The LED has a long service life and can reach more than 100,000 hours. The working voltage is low, which is very suitable for application on solar lawn lamps.
The garden light generally adopts LED light or 12V DC energy-saving lamp. The DC energy-saving lamp voltage is DC, no need to invert, convenient and safe.
The street lamp generally adopts 12V DC energy-saving lamp and low-pressure sodium lamp. The low-pressure sodium lamp has high efficiency but is relatively expensive, and is used less.